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Hidden Histories Senior Teaching Kit

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Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People
Secondary Teaching Kit

sovereignhillhiddenhistories.com.au

 

This Teaching Kit includes:

  • An overview of the features of Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People so that you can develop your own activities/lessons.
  • Some suggested activities/lessons that link key 7-10 Victorian Curriculum and VCE concepts, skills and knowledge with the themes and historical sources presented in Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People.
  • A collection of links to other websites and educational resources that can be used to complement use of Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People.

Website Overview

Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People is a website featuring a digital tour of Sovereign Hill. The tour focuses on the perspectives and participation of Aboriginal People on the Ballarat goldfields from 1851-1871. Created by Sovereign Hill Education, the entire website content is child-friendly and appropriate for classroom use. While a PC can be used to explore the tour at home or school, it is best experienced on a tablet and is enhanced by being used onsite where artefacts and displays can be fully experienced and appreciated.

The website has been deliberately built in layers so that those with little time can learn a lot in just 10 minutes, while those with a strong interest in the topic can explore all of the detail in roughly 2 hours.

There are a number of ways this website could be used in any 7-12 classroom:
• to prepare students for a visit to Sovereign Hill
• while they are onsite using tablets/smartphones
• as a post-excursion classroom activity
• to complement a unit of study about the gold rush or Aboriginal People
• to meet the cross-curriculum priority ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures’ in History Geography, English, and Civics and Citizenship.


How to use the website

Click ‘Begin’ on the homepage (accessed at http://sovereignhillhiddenhistories.com.au). Next, use this ‘Menu’ page (pictured below) to decide how to navigate through the content of the website. Students using the tour onsite are best to access the quizzes, information, videos etc. through ‘Start Tour’. Up to an hour could be allocated to this task during a school visit. In the classroom, it may be more engaging to create shorter activities based on content accessed conveniently by the student/teacher through other options in the ‘Menu’.


The interactive timeline uses the view of Ballarat from the top of Sovereign Hill’s poppet head to describe some key events in the last 60,000 years of ‘Our Shared History’. It begins in ochre orange and finishes in bright gold, a subtle reference to the changes in mineral use in the region over this long historical period. When the circle with the cross inside (see example) is tapped, information and an image relating to that timeline ‘event’ appears. All of the events can be explored by scrolling from left to right. The timeline is an ideal classroom teaching tool for primary students (it can be read in its entirety in less than 10 minutes).

Nine videos were made for the website to explain:
• bush medicine
• tree scarring
• scientific racism
• European curiosity collecting
• possum-skin cloak/rug making
• Aboriginal mining, ochre use
• the disappearance of the murnong daisy
• the role of the Native Police
These could be used in various ways by students of all ages (the longest video is only 2 minutes in duration).

The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) help to contextualise the tour. If your students think of any other questions about the website, they can be forwarded to us via education@sovereignhill.com.au or on Twitter through the handle @GoldfieldsEd.

To engage even the youngest students, we created 12 Interactive Quizzes to develop history thinking skills and provoke a curiosity to explore the website content in more depth. One of these images could be used to start a lesson about Aboriginal participation in, or perspectives on, the gold rushes, or could be the model for quizzes on other goldrush themes created by your students using cameras at Sovereign Hill.

When you or your students explore the Sources, you will find all of the Audio Files, Featured Historical Images (listed in alphabetical order by artist surname) and Links to more online resources (organised by tour stop). Having the website content arranged like this makes it easy to find exactly what you need.


 Suggested Activities/Lessons

The Victorian Curriculum ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures’ cross-curriculum priority is explained in detail here. Below, we have developed some suggestions for how you might use Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People to begin fulfilling this requirement.

All activities can be easily adapted to suit students of any age or ability; however, we have provided some guidance on appropriate Levels for ease of use by busy teachers.

History in the Victorian Curriculum

The Victorian History Curriculum - Levels 7 to 10, and VCE
Using the study of History to meet the cross-curriculum priority

Suggested activities/lessons:
Level 7 to VCE - Timeline card sort - Ballarat’s 60,000 year history
 Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Continuity and change’.

Level 7 to VCE - Environmental photo quest - How did the environmental impacts of the gold rushes affect Aboriginal People? An activity to be undertaken while onsite at Sovereign Hill.
Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Cause and effect’.

Level 7 to VCE - Using source analysis to deepen understandings about Aboriginal history
Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Historical sources as evidence’. This worksheet contains teacher notes on the second page to faciltate class discussion on the listed questions.

Level 7 to VCE - Speech bubble activity - What are these characters thinking?
Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Historical sources as evidence’.

Level 7 to VCE - Historical source analysis - an example on the topic: What was the impact of ‘contact’ on Aboriginal People?
Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Historical sources as evidence’. This worksheet includes three example analyses that could be used with students of most ages or abilities.

Levels 9 & 10 - Historical source sort - What opinions were held at the time?
Victorian Curriculum History - Historical concept/skill: ‘Historical sources as evidence’.

 


Geography in the Victorian Curriculum

The Victorian Geography Curriculum - Levels 7 to 10, and VCE
Using the study of History to meet the cross-curriculum priority

Suggested activities/lessons:
Level 7 to VCE - Write your own creation story - Oral histories can explain geological and climactic change Victorian Geography Curriculum - Geographical concepts/skill: ‘Place, space and interconnection’.

VCE - Aboriginal land management strategies - Understanding Bill Gammage’s theory
To complement studies undertaken in Unit 3: ‘Changing the Land, and Unit 4: Human Population - trends and issues’.


English in the Victorian Curriculum

The Victorian English Curriculum - Levels 7 to 10, and VCE
Using the study of History to meet the cross-curriculum priority

Suggested activities/lessons:

Level 9 to VCE - Oral history versus written history
Victorian English Curriculum - English skill: ‘Language Variation and Change’.

Level 9 to VCE - Historical source sort - What opinions were held at the time?
Victorian English Curriculum - English skill: ‘Language Variation and Change’.


Civics and Citizenship in the Victorian Curriculum

The Victorian Civics and Citizenship Curriculum - Levels 7 to 10
Using the study of History to meet the cross-curriculum priority

Suggested activities/lessons:
Level 7 to 10 - Victorian census analysis - Why not count us all?
Victorian Civics and Citizenship Curriculum - Civics and Citizenship concept: ‘Citizenship, Diversity and Identity’.

 


Using Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People in your VCE classroom

Hidden Histories provides resources specifically relevant and valuable to VCE Australian History Unit 3: ‘Area of Study 1- The reshaping of Port Phillip District/Victoria, 1834-1860’. It could be used as an introduction to the unit, and can be used to answer the three key questions which underpin Area of Study 1:
- How did Aboriginal and British arrivals’ understandings of land management and land ownership differ in the Port Phillip District/Victoria?
- What were the demographic and political consequences of the gold rushes?
- What were the responses of, and outcomes for, Aboriginal People following the arrival of the pastoral and goldrush colonists?

The website can be studied in the VCE Geography course in Unit 3: Land cover change. In particular, students can use the content found at the ‘Boiler House Woodpile’ and ‘Sheep Paddock’ tour stops. The audio file by historian Bill Gammage, author of The Biggest Estate on Earth is also useful for Unit 3 study, as are the videos of Wadawurrung elder Bryon Powell and Narmbool Education Officer Mathew Dowler.

Students of VCE Outdoor and Environmental Studies can utilise Hidden Histories to completement their Unit 3 and 4 learning. In particular, students can use the content found at the ‘Boiler House Woodpile’ and ‘Sheep Paddock’ tour stops. The audio file by historian Bill Gammage, author of The Biggest Estate on Earth is also useful for Unit 3 study, as are the videos of Wadawurrung elder Bryon Powell and Narmbool Education Officer Mathew Dowler.

 

 


Secondary activity/lesson details

History in the Victorian Curriculum: Suggestions for activities/lessons

All of the linked worksheets can be freely downloaded and changed to suit the needs of your students.

Level 7 to VCE - Timeline card sort - Ballarat’s 60,000 year history. See the worksheet.
Victorian History Curriculum - historical concept/skill: ‘Continuity and change’.

Students will make a timeline which includes the eight events on the Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People timeline along with ten other important world events in the last 60,000 years. Depending on the year level, students could work in groups or individually, do some research on each timeline event, or even practise putting their own lives in chronological order as preparation for this task. You might use the ‘History of Earth in a 24hr Clock’ to introduce the task and explain that studying 60,000 years of Australia’s experience of human habitation represents just 30 seconds on the clock. Ensure the timeline is very long to represent the time scale, and that most of the more recent events happened only a few years ago, relatively speaking. The dates can be removed to make the task more complex. Older students can have the summaries of the 10 non-Hidden Histories timeline events removed to develop their research and summarising skills.

Click here for larger version of this image.

 


• Level 7 to VCE - Environmental photo quest - How did the environmental impacts of the gold rushes affect Aboriginal People? An activity to be undertaken while on-site at Sovereign Hill. See the worksheet.
Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Cause and effect’.

During a visit to Sovereign Hill, explore the environmental impacts of the gold rushes and consider how these would have affected the traditional lifestyles of local Aboriginal People. Prepare your students for this task by studying the Hidden Histories ‘Boiler House Woodpile’ and ‘Sheep Paddock’ tour stops. Older students can also listen to the audio file by historian Bill Gammage, author of The Biggest Estate on Earth, and watch the videos of Wadawurrung elder Bryon Powell and Narmbool Education Officer Mathew Dowler.


• Level 7 to VCE - Using source analysis to deepen understandings about Aboriginal history. See the worksheet.
Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Historical sources as evidence’. This worksheet contains teacher notes on the second page to facilitate class discussion on the listed questions.

This source analysis can be undertaken by individuals or small groups. The worksheet includes six focus questions and detailed teacher notes to assist with class discussion. Once students have completed this worksheet, they might select another image of their choice from the Hidden Histories Sources page to analyse in this way to consolidate their skills. For more ideas on how to effectively use historical sources in the classroom, take a look at: http://www.vtshome.org/


• Level 7 to VCE - Speech bubble activity - What are these characters thinking? See the worksheet.
Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Historical sources as evidence’.

Working indivually, in small groups, or as a whole class, students can brainstorm the kinds of thoughts these characters from S. T. Gill’s famous Australian Sketchbook (1864) are likely to have had in the mid-19th century. The example can be shown to students to scaffold the task, and this same task can be replicated with other historical paintings/photographs on any other topic. A speech bubble activity like this can be used as a discussion starter, assessment task, or Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People website plenary by students of all ages. This task promotes empathy and can be used as an opinion-building exercise to support essay writing in History.


• Level 7 to VCE - Historical source analysis - an example on the topic: What was the impact of ‘contact’ on Aboriginal People? See the worksheet. Victorian History Curriculum - Historical concept/skill: ‘Historical sources as evidence’.This worksheet includes two example analyses that could be used with secondary students of most ages or abilities.

There are two different source analysis methods exemplified on this worksheet: ‘The 5 W’s‘ is for students in the Middle Years, and ‘Origin, Purpose, Value, Limitation’ is for Senior students. Any image from the Hidden Histories: The Wadawurrung People‘s ‘Sources‘ page can be analysed using these methods. Students can either set their own research questions or focus on a research topic set by the teacher. By looking closely at an image for evidence about what has happened in the past, students become more aware of the power of images in documenting history and communicating important messages. The same source analysis methods can be similarly applied to historical texts.


• Levels 9 & 10 - Historical source sort - What opinions were held at the time? See the worksheet.
Victorian Curriculum History - Historical concept/skill: ‘Historical sources as evidence’.

Individually or in small groups, students can sort the collection of written sources into two piles (empathetic to Aboriginal People/not empathetic) or three piles (empathetic/not empathetic/not sure) to stimulate discussion of 19th century values, or as evidence to support persuasive essay writing. A close analysis of the language and emotive techniques used in the various written sources can also be used as a literacy task. More information on opinions held at the time concerning Aboriginal People can be found at the Hidden Histories tour stops ‘The Mechanics’ Institute and Free Library’, ‘Sheep Paddock’, ‘Post Office’ and ‘Red Hill Gully Diggings’.

 


Geography in the Victorian Curriculum: Suggestions for activities/lessons

• Level 7 to VCE - Oral histories can explain geological and climatic change - Write your own creation story. See the worksheet.
Victorian Geography Curriculum - Geographical concepts/skill: ‘Place, space and interconnection’.

Using the Hidden Histories timeline ‘Legend of Mt Buninyong‘ students can evaluate how well such legends document changes in local geology and climate. Students can then try their hand at creating their own legend to explain where and when changes occur.


VCE - Aboriginal land management strategies - Understanding Bill Gammage’s theory. See the worksheet.
To complement studies undertaken in Unit 3: ‘Changing the Land, and Unit 4: Human Population - trends and issues’. This worksheet contains teacher’s notes on the third page to facilitate class discussion on the listed questions.

Start by encouraging your students to explore the ‘Boiler House Wood Pile’ tour stop in Hidden Histories. From the worksheet, learn more about Bill Gammage’s The Biggest Estate on Earth; Aboriginal People carefully managed our huge continent to promote conveniently accessed, predictable and abundant food, shelter, clothing and fibre. Students will then compare two images from the book to better understand this land management system. One image is an 1800s painting of Mt Eccles and the other is a modern photograph of the same place.



English in the Victorian Curriculum: Suggestions for activities/lessons

• Level 9 to VCE - Oral history versus written history. See the worksheet.
Victorian English Curriculum - English skill: ‘Language Variation and Change’.

Why is the written word privileged? Use the Hidden Histories timeline to contrast oral histories to written histories, and discuss which is a more reliable source of information. The worksheet, suitable for senior primary and secondary students, contrasts the pros and cons of both oral and written histories, and provides links to further research on the topic.


• Level 9 to VCE - Historical source sort - What opinions were held at the time? See the worksheet.
Victorian English Curriculum - English skill: ‘Language Variation and Change’.

Individually or in small groups, students can sort the collection of written sources into two piles (empathetic to Aboriginal People/not empathetic) or three piles (empathetic/not empathetic/not sure) to stimulate discussion of 19th century values, or as evidence to support persuasive essay writing. A close analysis of the language and emotive techniques used in the various written sources can be used as a literacy task. More information on opinions held at the time concerning Aboriginal People can be found at the Hidden Histories tour stops ‘The Mechanics’ Institute and Free Library’, ‘Sheep Paddock’, ‘Post Office’ and ‘Red Hill Gully Diggings’.

 


Civics and Citizenship in the Victorian Curriculum: Suggestions for activities/lessons

• Level 7 to 10 - Victorian census analysis - Why not count us all? See the worksheet.
Victorian Civics and Citizenship Curriculum - Civics and Citizenship concept: ‘Citizenship, Diversity and Identity’.

Students can undertake this secondary source analysis to better understand government attitudes towards Aboriginal People over time. This could be completed individually, or provide stimulus for a class discussion. Detailed teacher notes are included to aid dialogue.

 

 


Links to other online resources

• Interactive Aboriginal Australia language map: http://www.abc.net.au/indigenous/map/
• A link to Dr Fred Cahir’s Black Gold: Aboriginal People on the Goldfields of Victoria, 1850-1870: http://press.anu.edu.au/apps/bookworm/view/Black+Gold:+Aboriginal+People+on+the+Goldfields+of+Victoria,+1850-1870/9891/cover.html
• Research notes for secondary students on Ballarat’s Aboriginal history: http://education.sovereignhill.com.au/media/uploads/sovehill-pdf-file/SovHill-indigenousheritage-notes-ss1.pdf
• Some great videos on local language and ‘Ballaarat’ stories from Wadawurrung elder Bryon Powell: https://open.abc.net.au/explore/87085
• ‘Our Shared History’ timeline of 60,000 years of Australian history: http://shareourpride.reconciliation.org.au/sections/our-shared-history/
• Link to full episodes of SBS’s award-winning ‘First Australians’ series: http://www.sbs.com.au/firstaustralians/index/index/epid/1
• Melbourne Museum’s First Peoples Exhibition ‘Bunjilaka’: http://museumvictoria.com.au/bunjilaka/visiting/first-peoples/
• The story of Bunjil the Creator Ancestor at Melbourne Museum: https://museumvictoria.com.au/about/mv-blog/aug-2013/bunjils-wings/
• Learn more about Aboriginal culture at the Koorie Heritage Trust: http://www.koorieheritagetrust.com/
• Trailer for film about escaped convict William Buckley, who lived with (coastal) Wadawurrung People for 32 years: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhn7R3W1fxE
• Online version of Katherine Kirkland’s 1840s Notes On A Bush Life: http://bnnut.pbworks.com/w/page/40146590/Catherine%20Kirkland’s%20%22NOTES%20ON%20A%20BUSH%20LIFE%22
• New research about the frontier wars: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/jul/15/why-the-number-of-indigenous-deaths-in-the-frontier-wars-matters
• Child-friendly article about early colonist attitudes towards Australian Aboriginal People: http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/land-exploration/land-management/tarnishing-crown
• See more of S. T. Gill’s famous Australian Sketchbook here: http://www.nma.gov.au/collections/highlights/australian_sketchbook
• Two great articles about traditional Aboriginal land management:
https://theconversation.com/the-biggest-estate-on-earth-how-aborigines-made-australia-3787 http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/land-exploration/land-management/indigenous-land-use
• List of films created or inspired by Australian Aboriginal People: http://shareourpride.reconciliation.org.au/resource_sections/movies-entertainment/
• Overview of Australian Aboriginal People from the Australian Museum: http://australianmuseum.net.au/indigenous-australia
• Information about reconciliation: https://www.reconciliation.org.au/
• Information about native title: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-social-justice/projects/native-title
• A child-friendly article about Batman’s Treaty: http://ergo.slv.vic.gov.au/explore-history/colonial-melbourne/pioneers/batmans-treaty